Mahasanghikas' and Sthaviras' Parajika 5's
The major Buddhist schism in B.E. 149 (340 B.C) divided the Sangha into Mahasamghikas and Sthaviras. From the copy of the Mahasanghika Vinaya made by Fa Hsien (MDBNxx<footnote) we see that in spite of the differences in their details, both Vinayas have traces of stories, rule elaborations, cycle of permutations and no-offence clauses - illustrated below. Because the cycles of permutations were the last section of the suttavibhanga to be composed, we can assume that by the time of the schism all sections of the suttavibhanga were complete, or almost complete - perhaps some of the cycles of permutations were composed after the schism.
Comparing the Parajika 5's of the two schools
Mahasanghika’s Parajika 5 story
A handsome young man listened to the nun Rastra when she taught suttas. When she fell sick, he asked what medicine he could bring. She invited him for sex. He refused, but agreed to embrace and kiss her. The other nuns told her to stop, but she said she enjoyed it. The Buddha then established the rule.
Theravadan Parajika 5 story
A layman, Salha, built a vihara for the nuns. The nun Sundarinanda was the work supervisor. They fell in love. When Sundarinanda feigned sickness, Salha went to visit her. When he asked what was the matter with her, she complained that he did not love her. He replied “How can I not desire you?” and touched her. Another nun was watching. This led to the rule.
Mahasanghika Parajika 5 rule
If a nun who is lustful lets herself be touched and rubbed below the shoulders and above the knees by a man who is lustful, if she gets pleasure thereby, that nun commits a parajika offence, and ought not to be allowed to live together with the others (MDBN p115).
Theravadan Parajika 5 rule
Whatever nun, filled with desire, should consent to rubbing, or rubbing up against, or taking hold of, or touching, or pressing against a male person below the collar-bone, above the knees, if he is filled with desire, she also becomes one who is defeated, she is not in communion, she is one who touches above the circle of the knees (BD.3.213; Tr: IBH) (xx footnote: Books of Discipline tr. I.B.Horner, Pali Text Society).
Mahasanghika word analysis
- Nun: as explained above [ibid].
- A man whose mind is lustful: (a man) whose heart is impassioned.
- Below the shoulders: the breasts and below.
- Above the knees: the area from the thighs to the navel.
- To be touched and rubbed: to move the hand and stroke with it smoothly.
- To get pleasure from: to think of enjoyment and pleasure, and be stained (with passions) thereby.
- Parajika: as explained above.
- Not to be allowed to live together with the others: cannot live with the other nuns and receive Dhamma food or material food. Just as it is in the beginning, so shall it be in the end; just as it is in the end, so shall it be in the beginning (see p115).
Theravadan word analysis
- Nun ... [for full definition, see Appendix 8].
- Filled with desire means: infatuated, full of desire, physically in love with.
- A male person means: a human man, not a yakkha, peta or animal.
- Below the collar-bone means below the collar-bone.
- Above the knees means above the knees.
- Rubbing means: merely rubbed.
- Rubbing up against means moving from here and there.
- Taking hold of means merely taking hold of.
- Touching means merely contact.
- Or should consent to pressing means: having taken hopld of a limb she consents to pressing against.
Mahasanghika cycle of permutations
If a nun allows herself to be touched below the shoulders or above the knees
- if both are lustful: parajika.
- if she is lustful but he is not: parajika.
- if she is not lustful but he is: thullaccaya.
- if neither are lustful: dukkata.
- if she is lustful; with a lustful eunuch or woman: thullaccaya.
- if she is not lustful; with a not-lustful eunuch or a woman: dukkata (see p116).
Theravadan cycle of permutations
- If both are filled with desire, and a nun touches below the collar-bone and above the knees with her body: parajika; with something attached to the body: thullaccaya; something attached to the body with something attached to the body: dukkata.
- If a nun touches above the collar-bone and below the knees: thullaccaya.
- If one is filled with desire, and she rubs below the collar-bone and above the knees: thullaccaya.
- If one is filled with desire, and she rubs above the collar-bone and below the knees: dukkata.
- If both are filled with desire, and she rubs the body of a yakkha, or a ghost, or a eunuch, or an animal in human form, and she rubs below the collar-bone and above the knees: thullaccaya.
- If only one is filled with desire: dukkata.
- If she rubs above the collar-bone and below the knees: dukkata (abstracted from BD.3.162-3).
MDBNxx<footnote: Monastic Discipline for the Buddhist Nuns an English translation of the Chinese text of the Mahasanghika Bhiksuni Vinaya. It was copied by Fa Hsien in the early 5th Century, then translated by him from Sanskrit into Chinese in 416-8. It was translated into English by Akira Hirikawa in 1982. Publisher: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna, 1982.